Mutiny is a familiar subject. It is familiar in a narrative sense: take Mutiny on the Bounty for instance and the well-known story of an uprising against the cruel authority of Captain Bligh. Yet the story is not fictitious. Pitcairn Islands which harboured First Officer Fletcher Christian and the “mutinous” soldiers of the Bounty, is still populated by the descendants of the mutineers and remains a remnant of British colonialism. In that story, we tend to sympathize with the mutinous survivors who are depicted as justified in their actions. The story and the sympathies find repetition in the classic 1950s Henry Fonda/James Cagney movie, Mister Roberts. Again, the concept of struggling against unjust authority appears to be the theme. Yet, the actual Criminal Code offence of mutiny does not contain these built-in sympathies. In fact, although we rarely consider mutiny as a modern circumstance, it is a serious offence in our Criminal Code. Today, in the 48th episode of the Ideablawg podcasts on the Criminal Code, we will explore the offence of inciting mutiny.
Mutiny or inciting to mutiny as the offence is framed in section 53 is an English common law offence found in our first 1892 Criminal Code. It is one of the prohibited acts against the public order along with other offences such as alarming the Queen under s. 49. It is an offence whose purpose is to sanction treasonous or mutinous actions involving seduction or inciting of Canadian military personnel to act against the interests of the state. It reads as follows:
53 Every one who
(a) attempts, for a traitorous or mutinous purpose, to seduce a member of the Canadian Forces from his duty and allegiance to Her Majesty, or
(b) attempts to incite or to induce a member of the Canadian Forces to commit a traitorous or mutinous act,
is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.
Originally, until 1952-53 Code amendments, this offence was punishable by life imprisonment and therefore considered as serious as treason and murder. In fact, the offence remains a s. 469 offence, and, therefore, must be tried in Superior Court.
It should be noted that this is an offence of attempting to seduce, incite or induce as opposed to the actual completion of the contemplated action. The complete offences would fulfill the elements of the full offence of treason under s. 46 or even sedition under s. 63. Indeed, the original wording of the offence, as found in the 1892 Code, requires the offender to “endeavor” to seduce, incite or “stir up.” According to the Oxford Dictionary online, “endeavor” means “an attempt to achieve a goal.” The use of the term “endeavor” is consistent with the ulterior purpose required for the mens rea element of this section, which is to effect the prohibited conduct for “a traitorous or mutinous purpose.” Applying the 1995 SCC Hibbert case to the use of the word “purpose,” the Crown would need to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused acted with a high level of subjective mens rea.
Returning to the actus reus components of the section, the term “mutinous” or “mutiny” is not defined in the Criminal Code. “Mutiny” is defined under the National Defence Act as “collective insubordination or a combination of two or more persons in the resistance of lawful authority in any of Her Majesty’s Forces or in any forces cooperating therewith.” This definition reiterates the fact this crime is not unlike a counselling or conspiracy offence under the Code. It also requires “collective” behaviour involving more than one individual. The term “insubordination” has a peculiar meaning as reflected by the sections 83 to 87 of the National Defence Act. These insubordination offences cover a broad range of behaviour such as using threatening or insulting language to a superior officer under s. 85 or “strikes or uses violence” toward a superior officer. Desertion, however, is not considered an offence of “insubordination” but a separate infraction as is sedition.
In the Criminal Code, the term “insubordination” is used in “offences in relation to military forces” under s. 62 of the Code. We will discuss this offence later in this journey through the Criminal Code but in reading s. 62, which makes it an offence to counsel insubordination or mutiny, one wonders what the differences are between the two offences. Section 62 was not in the 1892 Code but was added in 1951 Code amendments. Certainly, section 53 is the broader offence and, as mentioned earlier, punishes an attempt to incite mutiny or treason. However, section 62 punishes the full or complete offence of mutiny, among other prohibited acts such as insubordination, yet the maximum punishment is by a term of imprisonment not exceeding five years. Clearly, section 62, the full offence, is considered a less serious offence than its counterpart s. 53, which punishes an attempt. Considering this, the assumption must be that the s. 53 offence is meant to capture more serious behaviour than just “collective insubordination.” However, in a 2004 court martial decision, Blouin P.S. (Corporal), R. v., 2004 CM 25 (CanLII), the presiding military judge in sentencing Corporal Blouin for a form of insubordination under s. 84 of the National Defence Act involving an assault of a superior officer, described the act as “attacking not merely the individual but the cornerstone of the military institution he or she represents: the chain of command.” The judge then characterized the offence of insubordination as “objectively serious as the offence of treason or mutiny.”
Another aspect of the actus reus is the requirement the accused “seduce” under 53(a) or “incite or induce” under 53(b) a member of the Canadian Forces. The concept of seduction is an old one as found in offences of seduction in the 1892 Code, which have now been repealed, such as the offence of seduction of females who are passengers on vessels, or the offence of seduction of girls under sixteen years. Presently, s. 53 is the only section in the Criminal Code referring to seduction. What does “seduce” then mean? The word “seduction” arises from the Latin word “seduco” meaning to draw aside or lead astray. Of course, there was a decidedly gender bias to those original seduction offences and the case law on the interpretation of the word “seduction” reflects that. In the 1927 Saskatchewan Queen’s Bench decision, R v Schemmer, seduction was deemed to be a word connoting a loss of a woman’s virtue imbuing the offence with a moralistic condemnation. By analogy therefore “seduce” as used in s. 53 has an aspect of a “fall from grace” as epitomized by Darth Vader in Star Wars who attempts to “seduce” his son, Luke Skywalker, to the dark side of the force.
The Court in the Schemmer decision suggests seduction requires an element of enticement and inducement, which happen to be the prohibited act requirements for the mutiny offence under s. 53(b). “Incite” as defined in the Merriam Webster online dictionary is to “urge on” or “stir up”. As previously mentioned the phrase “stir up” was included in the original 1892 offence. “Induce” is to “move by persuasion or influence” and is related to “seduce” but in the online dictionary “seduce” is to “lead astray by persuasion” or by “false promises,” giving seduction a fraudulent tone. A further definition of “seduce” includes “to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty” which seems to be the conduct underlying s. 53.
It should be noted that Canadian Forces is defined under section 2 of the Code as the armed forces “of Her Majesty raised by Canada.”
A final aspect of the section 53(a) offence is the requirement that the prohibited act involves an attempt to seduce a member from his or her “duty and allegiance to Her Majesty.” This requires proof that the seduction is directly linked to the member’s duty and allegiance to the sovereign.
Section 53 is presently rarely used and appears to have a “doppelganger” section in the form of section 62. This section should certainly be considered in the revisions of the Code as a section no longer used or needed in our criminal law.